‘All of a Sudden, There Are Muslims’: Visibilities and Islamophobic Violence in Canada

  • University of Ontario Institute of Technology


This paper traces the meanings and impacts of the increased and transformed visibility of Muslim communities in Canada, as evidenced through their experiences of surveillance and violence. It explores the contours of this visibility as well as the consequences. Relationships between Muslims and non-Muslims are shaped in and through hostility, harassment and violence which is directed toward increasingly visible Muslim communities. Guiding the analysis of the connections between visibility and hate crime is a frame that draws upon Brighenti’s ideal types of visibility: media-type, control-type and social-type.

Creative Commons License
Except where otherwise noted, content in this journal is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.
Published: 2015-10-05
Pages:4 to 15
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Author Biography

University of Ontario Institute of Technology


Faculty of Social Science and Humanities