Injustice and Environmental Harm in Extractive Industries and Solar Energy Policies in Indonesia
The rapid development of Indonesia’s economy in the recent decades has accelerated the exploitation of natural resources by the extractive industries and increased carbon emissions through higher energy consumption. Additionally, the persistent enthusiasm for coal energy and the ambitious deployment of renewable energy may have led to injustices in the energy system, short-sighted corrupt practices, and environmental harm. This article examines the challenges and risks of energy source utilization and technological developments linked to coal, geothermal, and solar energy. More specifically, I focused on the following issues: domestic market obligation for coal, geothermal exploration, solar lamp distribution, rooftop photovoltaic policy, and electricity charging stations (ECS). Investigating these issues from an energy justice and a green criminology perspective allowed us to evaluate them concerning instances where injustices (to humans and the environment) have emerged and how they should be addressed. In conclusion, the article demonstrates how the marginalization of rural communities and production of environmental harm has been perpetuated by powerful figures, reinforced since colonialism, and escalated by the demands of the Global North.
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